A History of Science in Society: A Reader
Published: May 2007© 2007
Imprint: University of Toronto Press
Page Count: 470 Pages
Dimensions: 7.00 x 9.00
470 Pages, 7.00 x 9.00 x 1.00 in
A History of Science in Society: A Reader, edited by Andrew Ede and Lesley B. Cormack, is a collection of primary source documents and an excellent companion to their text by the same name. It includes scientific papers as well as more popular and cultural expressions of scientific ideas from the likes of Margaret Cavendish, Albert Einstein, and Rachel Carson. Readings from the pre-Scientific Revolution, the Middle Ages, the Islamic world, and women scientists are also well represented in this collection. Each of the over 90 readings begins with a short description providing historical context, but readers may also refer to the authors' companion text. Illustrations and maps integral to the readings are included, along with a Chronology of Readings and a Topical Index.
Chronology of Readings
Chapter 1: The Origins of Natural Philosophy
1.2.1 The Republic
1.3.1 Posterior Analytics
1.3.2 Prior Analytics
1.4 Euclid, The Elements
1.5 Lucretius, On the Nature of Things
Chapter 2: The Roman Era and the Rise of Islam
2.2 Galen, On the Therapeutic Method
2.3 Pliny the Elder, Natural History
2.4 Boethius, "On Arithmetic"
2.5 Geber, Alchemy
2.6 Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Commentary on Aristotle
2.7 Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
2.7.1 "On the formation of Minerals and Metals"
2.8 Al-Khwarizmi, "Six Types of Rhetorical Algebraic Equations"
2.9 Al-Ghazali, Incoherence of the Philosophers
2.10 Maimonides, The Guide for the Perplexed
Chapter 3: The Revival of Natural Philosophy in Western Europe
3.1 Alcuin, The Rhetoric of Alcuin and Charlemagne
3.2 Albertus Magnus, "On the Material, Hardness, and Fissility of Stones"
3.3 Thomas Aquinas, "Questions I-IV of his Commentary on the De Trinitate of Boethius"
3.4 Jean Buridan, "The Impetus Theory of Projectile Motion"
3.5 Robert Grosseteste, "On the Rainbow"
3.6 Theodoric of Freiberg, "On the Rainbow"
3.7 Nicole Oresme, Geometry of Qualities and Motions
3.8 William Ockham
3.8.1 Theory of Terms: Summa Logicae (Part I)
3.8.2 "Questions on Aristotle’s Physics"
3.9 Johannes Sacrobosco, The Sphere
Chapter 4: Science in the Renaissance: The Courtly Philosophers
4.1 Nicolas Copernicus, On the Revolutions
4.2 Galileo Galilei
4.2.1 Two New Sciences
4.2.2 "Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina"
4.3 Johannes Kepler, The Harmony of the World
4.4 Paracelsus, Ioatrochemistry
4.5 Andreas Vesalius, The Epitome of De Fabrica Corporis Humanis
Chapter 5: The Scientific Revolution: Contested Theory
5.1 Francis Bacon
5.1.1 The New Atlantis
5.1.2 The New Organon
5.2 Rene Descartes, Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One’s Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences
5.3 Margaret Lucas Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, Grounds of Natural Philosophy
5.4 Isaac Newton
5.4.1 The Principia Mathematica
5.5 William Harvey, The Circulation of the Blood
5.6 Robert Boyle, The Skeptical Chymist
Chapter 6: The Enlightenment and Enterprise
6.1 Denis Diderot, "The Arts" from Encyclopedie
6.2 Count Francesco Algarotti, Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophy explain’d for the Use of the Ladies
6.3 Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet, Selected Writings
6.4 Joseph Priestley, Considerations on the Doctrine of Phlogiston and the Decomposition of Water
6.5 Antoine Lavoisier, Elements of Chemistry
6.6 Benjamin Franklin, Experiments and Observations on Electricity
6.7 Caroline Herschel, Autobiographies
6.8 John Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth
6.9 Mungo Park, Travels into the Interior of Africa
Chapter 7: Science and Empire
7.1 Alexander von Humboldt, Cosmos
7.2 Georges Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth
7.3 Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, Zoological Philosophy
7.4 Charles Babbage, Reflections on the Decline of Science in England
7.5 Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology
7.6 Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species
7.7 Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences
7.8 Herbert Spencer, The Principles of Sociology
7.9 Louis Pasteur, Studies on Fermentation
7.10 William Thomson Kelvin, 1st Baron, "Review of Evidence Regarding the Physical Condition of the Earth"
7.11 Dmitri Ivanovitch Mendeleev, The Principles of Chemistry
Chapter 8: The Death of Certainty: Science and War
8.1 Count Benjamin Thompson Rumford, An Experimental Inquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat which is Excited by Friction
8.2 Michael Faraday, Experimental Researches in Electricity
8.3 James Clerk Maxwell, A Dynamical Theory of Electromagnetic Field
8.4 J.J. Thomson, "Carriers of Negative Electricity"
8.5 Amedeo Avogadro, "Essay on a Manner of Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies and the Proportions in which they enter into these Compounds"
8.6 Ernest Rutherford, The Newer Alchemy
8.7 Marie Sklodowska Curie
8.7.1 Radioactive Substances
8.7.2 Eve Curie, Madame Curie: A Biography
8.8 L.F. Haber, The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War
8.9 Albert Einstein
8.9.1 "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"
8.9.2 "What is the Theory of Relativity?"
8.10 Sigmund Freud, The Ego and the Id
Chapter 9: Entering the Atomic Age
9.1 Gregor Mendel, Experiments in Plant Hybridisation
9.2 Thomas Hunt Morgan, The Scientific Basis of Evolution
9.3 Erwin Schrödinger, "Quantum Mechanics"
9.4 Lise Meitner and Otto R. Frisch
9.4.1 "Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons"
9.4.2 "Products of the Fission of the Uranium Nucleus"
9.5 Committee on Political and Social Problems, Manhattan Project, "Franck Report"
9.6 Robert Oppenheimer, "Atomic Explosives [May 1946]"
9.7 Erwin Schrödinger, What is Life? The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell
9.8 John D. Watson and Francis H. Crick, "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid"
9.9 Barbara McClintock, "The Significance of Responses of the Genome to Challenge"
Chapter 10: 1957: The Year the World Became a Planet
10.1 John F. Kennedy, "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs"
10.2 Sydney Chapman, "Introduction to the History of the First International Polar Year"
10.3 Sir Harold Spencer Jones, "The Inception and Development of the International Geophysical Year"
10.4 J. Tuzo Wilson
10.4.1 "Hypothesis of Earth’s Behaviour"
10.4.2 "A New Class of Faults"
10.5 Vannevar Bush, Modern Arms and Free Men
10.6 Fred Hoyle, The Nature of the Universe
Chapter 11: Man on the Moon, Microwave in the Kitchen
11.1 Margaret Sanger
11.1.1 An Autobiography
11.1.2 "Birth Control and Racial Betterment"
11.2 Charles Babbage, "Of the Analytical Engine"
11.3 Alan Turing, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"
11.4 Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
11.5 Human Genome Project, "Mission Statement"
11.6 UNESCO, "Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights"
11.7 US Supreme Court, Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 US 303 (1980)
Index of Topics
Gone are the days of photocopying my own handmade course reader for my history of science classes! A History of Science in Society: A Reader is a veritable treasure trove of documents and an indispensable resource for students and teachers of the history of science. Ede and Cormack bring together primary sources spanning from antiquity to the twentieth century in one essential reader. Many of these texts were previously difficult to find or scattered among numerous collections. The scope and diversity of this volume will greatly enrich history of science courses by allowing students to engage easily and comparatively with texts as they never have been able before.Leah DeVun, Texas A&M University
Ede and Cormack have assembled a truly comprehensive and uncompromising collection of original sources in the history of Western science. Beginning with the birth of science in the ancient Greeks, the collection contains just about every major textual source in the growth of science, not shying away from recent controversies in the political and social place of contemporary science. All the 'greats' are there—Aristotle, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Harvey, Darwin, Einstein, Freud—plus hundreds of other equally important, but often neglected, primary readings in the development of science. This collection will hold its place as the standard source reader for years to come.Gordon McOuat, University of King's College / Dalhousie University