A Reformation Sourcebook: Documents from an Age of Debate

Edited by Michael W. Bruening

© 2017

During the Reformation, Europeans were engaged in a debate that would alter the course of European history. This debate was about how to understand and practice the Christian faith. Never before had so many people weighed in on a topic of such importance.

This book presents the debates of the Reformation era through over eighty primary sources. Some of the documents present formal debates. Others represent informal debates or disputes, with one text responding directly to the other. Still other sections present texts that offer divergent approaches to or perspectives on specific ideas. These too were part of the century-long debate that characterized the Reformation.

The author provides an essay on how to read primary sources. Each chapter opens with a brief introduction, and each group of primary sources is preceded by information on historical context as well as focus questions. Further readings are provided at the end of each chapter, and a map of Europe divided by religions is included.

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  • Division: Higher Education
  • World Rights
  • Page Count: 320 pages
  • Dimensions: 8.3in x 0.8in x 10.3in
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Quick Overview

This book presents the debates of the Reformation era through over eighty primary sources.

A Reformation Sourcebook: Documents from an Age of Debate

Edited by Michael W. Bruening

© 2017

During the Reformation, Europeans were engaged in a debate that would alter the course of European history. This debate was about how to understand and practice the Christian faith. Never before had so many people weighed in on a topic of such importance.

This book presents the debates of the Reformation era through over eighty primary sources. Some of the documents present formal debates. Others represent informal debates or disputes, with one text responding directly to the other. Still other sections present texts that offer divergent approaches to or perspectives on specific ideas. These too were part of the century-long debate that characterized the Reformation.

The author provides an essay on how to read primary sources. Each chapter opens with a brief introduction, and each group of primary sources is preceded by information on historical context as well as focus questions. Further readings are provided at the end of each chapter, and a map of Europe divided by religions is included.

Continue Reading Read Less

Product Details

  • Division: Higher Education
  • World Rights
  • Page Count: 320 pages
  • Dimensions: 8.3in x 0.8in x 10.3in
  • Reviews

    Bruening's source book stands out mainly for its focus on matters of debate and contention (such as the Eucharist) rather than on less-controverted subjects such as spirituality or preaching on morals. An invaluable tool for undergraduates studying the Protestant Reformation.
    J.P. Blosser, Benedictine College
    CHOICE

    "Bruening has provided a valuable service in the many ways this reader will facilitate learning about sixteenth-century Reformation movements. Its many features make it exceptionally helpful for classroom use. Its structure also helps teach empathy. Bruening writes that ‘to understand the Reformation, one must understand both sides of the debates that took place at the time; this sourcebook will help you do just that’ (xvi). Yes, it will!"
    Donald K. McKim, Reformation

    The Reformation was a cauldron of disagreement and conflict wherein reform ideas and practices were formulated through the act of argument and disputation. Bruening's collection of primary sources is the first volume to reflect this critical dimension of the Reformation. The selection of documents is superb, covering the major theological, political, cultural, and social conflicts of the era. The disagreements inherent in these sources will spark some exciting debates among students. A Reformation Sourcebook is a fabulous resource that will further the understanding of the issues over which sixteenth-century people fought, died, and killed.
    Gary K. Waite, University of New Brunswick

    This collection is wonderfully balanced and superbly edited. Bruening has carefully chosen documents that address with precision the broad range of Reformation controversies. The selections are pertinent, illuminating, and accessible. They form a valuable resource for teaching the Reformation at any level.
    Raymond A. Mentzer, University of Iowa

    I have found my new source reader for my Reformation course. This reader offers rich material in an eminently teachable debate format.
    Craig Koslofsky, University of Illinois
  • Author Information

    Michael W. Bruening is Associate Professor in the History and Political Science department at Missouri University of Science and Technology. His previous publications include Calvinism’s First Battleground (2005) and Epistolae Petri Vireti (2012).
  • Table of contents

    Preface
    How to Read a Primary Document

    I The Late Medieval Background to the Reformation
    I. Papal Authority
    1. Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam, 1302
    2. The Council of Constance
    A. Haec Sancta, 1415
    B. Frequens, 1417
    3. Pope Pius II, Execrabilis, 1459
    II. Late Medieval Heresy
    4. Jan Hus, The Church, 1413
    5. Council of Constance, Sentence against Jan Hus, 1415
    III. Scholasticism and Humanism
    6. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, III.75(2), Transubstantiation, 1274
    7. Erasmus of Rotterdam, Paraclesis, 1516
    IV. Lay Piety
    8. Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogue on Miracles, Early Thirteenth Century
    A. “Virgin in Place of a Nun Who Had Fled from the Convent”
    B. “Concerning a Merchant to Whom a Harlot Sold the Arm of St. John the Baptist”
    9. Erasmus, Colloquies, “The Religious Pilgrimage,” 1526
    Further Reading

    II The Development of Martin Luther’s Thought
    V. The Indulgence Controversy
    10. Martin Luther, Sermon on Indulgences and Grace, 1518
    11. Johann Tetzel, Rebuttal against Luther’s Sermon on Indulgences and Grace, 1518
    VI. Luther’s Three Treatises, Part 1: Address to the Christian Nobility and the Priesthood of All Believers
    12. Luther, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, 1520
    13. Johannes Eck, Enchiridion, “The Sacrament of Holy Orders,” 1555
    VII. Luther’s Three Treatises, Part 2: The Babylonian Captivity and the Sacraments
    14. Luther, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, 1520
    15. King Henry VIII, Defense of the Seven Sacraments, 1521
    VIII. Luther’s Three Treatises, Part 3: Freedom of a Christian and Justification by Faith Alone
    16. Luther, The Freedom of a Christian, 1520
    17. Eck, Enchiridion, “Faith and Good Works,” 1533
    IX. Luther and Erasmus on Free Will
    18. Erasmus, On Free Will, 1524
    19. Luther, The Bondage of the Will, 1525
    Further Reading

    II The Early Radical Wing and the German Peasants’ War
    X. Karlstadt, Luther, and the Debate over Images and the Speed of Reform
    20. Karlstadt, On the Removal of Images, 1522
    21. Luther, Invocavit Sermons, 1522
    A. The First Sermon, March 9, 1522, Invocavit Sunday
    B. The Third Sermon, March 11, 1522, Tuesday after Invocavit
    22. Karlstadt, Whether One Should Proceed Slowly, 1524
    XI. Thomas Müntzer, Spiritualism, and Social Revolution
    23. Thomas Müntzer, Sermon before the Princes, 1524
    24. Luther, Letter to the Princes of Saxony Concerning the Rebellious Spirit, 1524
    XII. The German Peasants’ War
    25. The Twelve Articles of the Peasants, 1525
    26. Luther, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants, 1525
    Further Reading

    IV Ulrich Zwingli, the Reformed Tradition, and Swiss Anabaptism
    XIII. Zwingli and the Reformation in Zurich
    27. The First Zurich Disputation, January 1523
    XIV. The Colloquy of Marburg
    28. The Debate at the Colloquy of Marburg, 1529
    XV. Zwingli and the Anabaptists
    29. The Schleitheim Confession of Faith, 1527
    30. Zwingli, Refutation of the Tricks of the Catabaptists, 1527
    Further Reading

    V French Reform and Calvinism
    XVI. The Reform Group of Meaux
    31. Jacques Lefèvre d’Etaples, Preface to the French Translation of the Gospels, 1523
    32. Paris Faculty of Theology, Condemnation of the Meaux Reforms, 1523
    XVII. The Affair of the Placards
    33. Antoine Marcourt, the Placards of 1534
    34. Paris Processions in Response to the Placards, 1534–1535
    XVIII. John Calvin’s Thought
    35. John Calvin, Instruction and Confession of Faith Used in the Church of Geneva, 1537
    XIX. Calvin’s Debate with Sadoleto
    36. Jacopo Sadoleto, Letter to Geneva, 1539
    37. Calvin, Reply to Sadoleto, 1539
    XX. Moral Discipline in Geneva
    38. Geneva Ordinances
    A. Ordinances for the Regulation of the Churches Dependent upon the Seigniory of Geneva, 1547
    B. The Ecclesiastical Ordinances of 1561
    39. Geneva Consistory Records
    Further Reading

    VI The English Reformation
    XXI. Thomas More and William Tyndale on the English Bible
    40. Thomas More, Dialogue Concerning Heresies, 1529
    41. William Tyndale, An Answer to Sir Thomas More’s Dialogue, 1531
    XXII. Henry VIII’s Break from Rome
    42. Henry VIII’s Reformation Parliament, Act of Supremacy, 1534 (26 Henry VIII c. 1)
    43. Trial of Sir Thomas More, 1535
    XXIII. Protestantism under Edward VI and Catholicism under Mary I
    44. Thomas Cranmer, Homily or Sermon of Good Works Annexed unto Faith, 1547
    45. Cardinal Reginald Pole, Speech to the Citizens of London, c. 1555
    XXIV. Elizabethan (Un)settlement: Puritans and Anglicans
    46. John Field and Thomas Wilcox, Admonition to Parliament, 1572
    47. Richard Hooker, The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, 1594
    Further Reading

    VII The Catholic/Counter-Reformation
    XXV. The Council of Trent, 1545–1563
    48. Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent
    49. Calvin, Antidote to the Council of Trent, 1547
    XXVI. Women, Mysticism, and Inquisition
    50. Teresa of Ávila, The Way of Perfection, 1583
    51. The Inquisition Trial of Francisca de los Apóstoles, 1575–1577
    XXVII. The Society of Jesus and Campion’s Brag
    52. Edmund Campion, Challenge to the Privy Council (Campion’s Brag), 1580
    53. William Charke, An Answer to a Seditious Pamphlet, 1581
    Further Reading

    VIII Wars of Religion
    XXVIII. The Wars of Kappel, 1529–1531
    54. Kappel Declarations of War
    A. Zurich’s Declaration of War, June 8, 1529
    B. The Catholic Cantons’ Declaration of War, 1531
    55. Zwingli’s Death at the Battle of Kappel: Two Accounts, 1531
    A. A Catholic Version
    B. Heinrich Bullinger’s Account
    XXIX. The Schmalkaldic War and the Peace of Augsburg, 1546–1555
    56. Alliance between Emperor Charles V and Pope Paul III, 1546 192
    57. The Peace of Augsburg, 1555
    XXX. The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1598
    58. Giovanni Michiel, Venetian Ambassador’s Report on the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572
    59. Marc-Antoine de Muret, Oration before Pope Gregory XIII, 1572
    60. Nicholas Barnaud(?), Reveille-Matin: Wake-Up Call for the French and Their Neighbors, 1574
    Further Reading

    IX Cultural Impact of the Reformation, Part 1: Christian Life and Practice
    XXXI. Baptism
    61. Catholic Rite of Baptism from the Sarum Missal, 1543
    62. Protestant Baptism: A Rite of Baptism Used at Strasbourg, 1525–1530
    XXXII. Food and Fasting
    63. Zwingli, Concerning Choice and Liberty Respecting Food, 1522
    64. Francis de Sales on Fasting, Sermon for Ash Wednesday, c. 1620
    XXXIII. Carnival and Lent
    65. Description of Carnival in Rouen, 1541
    66. Philip Stubbs, Anatomy of Abuses, 1583
    67. King James I, Book of Sports, 1618
    XXXIV. Music
    68. Luther on Music
    A. Luther to George Spalatin on Hymns, 1523
    B. Luther, Preface to the Hymnal of 1524
    69. Conrad Grebel, Letter to Thomas Müntzer, 1524
    70. Calvin, Preface to the Huguenot Psalter, 1543
    XXXV. Death and Dying
    71. Catherine of Genoa, Treatise on Purgatory, c. 1510
    72. Anonymous (Guillaume Farel’s Circle), Treatise on Purgatory, 1534
    73. Protestant and Catholic Funerals
    A. Catholic Ritual: Erasmus, Colloquies, “The Funeral,” 1526
    B. Calvinist Ritual: The Parisian Passwind on Geneva Funerals
    Further Reading

    X Cultural Impact of the Reformation, Part 2: Social Relations and Customs
    XXXVI. Women
    74. John Knox, First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, 1558
    75. Marie Dentière, Epistle to Marguerite of Navarre, 1538
    76. Katharina Schütz Zell, Letter to Caspar Schwenckfeld, 1553
    XXXVII. Sex, Chastity, and Marriage
    77. Luther, The Estate of Marriage, 1522
    78. Eck, Enchiridion, “The Celibacy of the Clergy,” 1529
    79. Ana de San Bartolomé, Autobiography, 1625
    XXXVIII. The Jews
    80. Johannes Pfefferkorn, The Jews’ Mirror, 1507
    81. Johannes Reuchlin, Recommendation Whether to Confiscate, Destroy, and Burn All Jewish Books, 1510
    82. Luther, That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew, 1523
    83. Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies, 1543
    XXXIX. The Servetus Affair and Religious Toleration
    84. Sebastian Castellio, Concerning Heretics, Whether They Are to Be Persecuted and How They Are to Be Treated, 1554
    85. Theodore Beza, The Authority of the Magistrate in Punishing Heretics, 1554
    XL. Slavery
    86. The Iwie Debate, 1568
    Further Reading

    Sources