University of Toronto Press Blog

  • Presumed Heterosexuality in the Archives

    Written by guest blogger, Erin Gallagher-Cohoon.

    Between 1946 and 1948, US Public Health Service (USPHS) researchers deliberately exposed Guatemalan prisoners, soldiers, asylum patients, and sex workers to syphilis, gonorrhea, and chancroid. Leading up to this study, it was discovered that penicillin could cure syphilis and gonorrhea, and researchers were eager to learn whether penicillin had potential as a preventative and not just a cure. The original study design called for a sexual transmission method, although this was quickly supplanted by medical exposures. To put it more bluntly, the original study design called for hiring sex workers (who had either tested positive or were simply assumed to be infected with a venereal disease) to have sex with prisoners and soldiers and thus, it was hoped, to transmit venereal diseases from the women to the men. It was politically inadvisable in the United States for government researchers to be hiring sex workers. So they headed to a country with legalized prostitution, Guatemala.

    In 2015, in the midst of my research on the USPHS’ Sexually Transmitted Disease Inoculation Study, I came across a part of the history that made no sense to me.

    At this point in my studies, the records of the lead medical researcher, Dr. John C. Cutler, had been redacted and digitized (see https://www.archives.gov/research/health/cdc-cutler-records). So, I imagine I was squinting at my laptop in confusion.

    National Archives and Records Administration

    I was reading the patient index cards. Patient 147, a male asylum patient, “was a known, highly promiscuous and active homosexual.”[1] He was not the only male subject whose index card included a reference to same-sex sexual activities.

    These homosexual encounters were significant to me because they contradicted Dr. Cutler’s own words. In his “Final Syphilis Report,” he wrote: “homosexual contacts did not significantly alter experimental results.”[2]

    National Archives and Records Administration

    How, I wondered, could Dr. Cutler so readily dismiss the possibility that homosexual contacts might have been experimentally significant? On one hand, it seemed to me, he was dismissing the same-sex sexual activity of his male research subjects; while on the other, he was recording the existence of these “contacts,” and later archiving them for future researchers to find.

    The easy answer is that these encounters, based on his records, were statistically rare, and that “no clinical evidence of spread of syphilis by this route was observed.”[3] As I argue in my recent article in the Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, however, this does not sufficiently explain the contradictions within the records. Rather, as the original study design shows, the study was based on a flawed understanding of disease transmission that assumed the presence of an infected female body, an assumption that was fundamentally heteronormative. Within this context, homosexual behaviour was implausible or, at best, irrelevant.

    [1] Patient 147, Index Cards, Insane Asylum Female Patients Con't, Hollinger Box 1a, CDC Record Group 442, Records of Dr. John C. Cutler, National Archives and Records Administration at Atlanta. Although grouped with the index cards of 'Insane Asylum Female Patients Con't,' this patient was in fact male. On 19 September 1947, it was noted that "Penis-papule at right of frenum, 3x5 mm. The frenum and foreskin surrounding papule are indurated."

    [2] Records of Dr. John C. Cutler, Final Syphilis Report, Folder 1, 29.

    [3] Records of Dr. John C. Cutler, Final Syphilis Report, Folder 1, 27.


    Erin Gallagher-Cohoon (Department of History, Queen's University) recently published “Despite Being ‘Known, Highly Promiscuous and Active’: Presumed Heterosexuality in the USPHS’s STD Inoculation Study, 1946–48” in the Fall 2018 issue of Canadian Bulletin of Medical History. The article is free to read for a limited time here.

  • Metadata from <front> to </back>: Publishing Metadata with UTP Journals

    XML Code over Journal Covers

    Last week, we attended Crossref LIVE18 with this year's theme being How good is your metadata? In preparation for the conference, we put together a poster outlining our metadata workflow and how we plan to continually adapt in the ever-changing world of scholarly metadata. Download the poster here (PDF) or continue reading to learn more about how we work with metadata.

    UTP Journals Metadata Workflow

    At UTP Journals, our mission is to publish exemplary works of scholarship and to disseminate knowledge widely for the benefit of society. Metadata is the key to this mission in a digital world. Our metadata workflow starts from manuscript submission and flows through the editorial and production process, building and improving until publication and beyond.

    1. Manuscript Submission

    Authors create their own article metadata in an individual journal’s submission system by completing form fields as part of the submission process. With the power of Clarivate’s ScholarOne Manuscripts™ and a robust XML export process, this metadata is retained throughout editing and production processes.

    Submission metadata includes:

    • Article Title
    • Abstract(s)—some journals publish English and/or French abstracts, as well as lay summaries
    • Keywords—also often available in English and French
    • Contributor information—details about the corresponding author, given name(s), surname(s), institutional affiliation(s), email(s), and ORCIDs (automatically verified)
    • Funders—if applicable
    • Date received—automatic
    • Date revised—automatic, if applicable

    2. Editorial Process

    Editors also contribute article metadata at various stages between manuscript submission and production.

    As part of ScholarOne’s editorial and peer review workflow, editors can accept articles and assign them to specific volumes and issues for a journal, as well as assign or automatically generate a DOI before the article even reaches production.

    Metadata added at this stage includes:

    • Date accepted
    • Volume and issue assignment
    • Issue title
    • TOC subject title
    • DOI

    3. Typesetting and File Prep

    Files are prepped, processed, and tagged before and after copy editing to ensure the manuscript, and particularly the references, are tagged meaningfully prior to publication. We use JATS XML to store journal metadata alongside manuscripts.

    Early in production, individual articles may be published as Advance Online (AO) articles and receive a “preprint” date in the XML. AO DOIs are registered and retained in final publication when they’re updated with the full set of metadata.

    DOIs are automatically added to references when reference data matches Crossref records, so authors don’t necessarily need to hunt down article DOIs in order to improve reference linking.

    Metadata is completed prior to publication, including:

    • Advance Online date
    • EPUB date
    • PPUB date
    • License data including license type and copyright URL
    • References
    • Full-text URL

    4. Publication and Indexing

    Articles published on our UTP Journals Online platform are automatically deposited to Crossref for DOI registration. Our full-text JATS XML files are converted to readable Crossref metadata.

    Advance Online articles and version of record articles share one DOI and one URL. Our platform also allows us to enable multiple resolution URLs for journals simultaneously hosted by our partners, including Project MUSE, EBSCO, and JSTOR. This ensures that users have additional possible avenues of access.

    We have dedicated team members monitoring DOIs for errors and conflicts to ensure the metadata we deposit is high quality and accessible, as well as to make improvements to our metadata deposits as they become available..

    With over 20 complete online archives, all digitized content has been registered with Crossref with unique DOIs and metadata.

    All of UTP’s content is registered with our 10.3138 DOI prefix, and each article begins with a 3-to-8-letter code (usually an acronym) matching the DOI of the journal it’s been published in.

    The Future of UTP Metadata

    How good is our metadata? Only as good as we continuously strive to make it.

    Participation Reports: At UTP, we are now exploring Crossref’s beta Participation Reports tool to see where we can improve our metadata in the future. It all ties into the interest we have in what metadata matters when it comes to UTP’s particular journal content.

    Upcoming Automatic Deposit Support: UTP Journals Online, powered by Atypon® Literatum, is actively improving in its index depositing capabilities to ensure the metadata we retain is deposited wherever possible. One of the features we anticipate is automatic authentication for the ORCIDs that authors provide. Support for abstract deposits are expected in an upcoming release, and we eagerly anticipate future upgrades.

    Investing in Metadata: We have exciting plans to improve our metadata workflow, further enrich the metadata we publish, and invest the necessary time and resources to accomplish our goal of publishing quality metadata across all journals.

    Author Resources

    We want authors to understand the importance of the metadata they provide, as well as how it is used. Our online and print author resources explain:

    • Why is it important to write a meaningful title, abstract, and keywords?
    • Why link to the version of record?
    • What is a digital object identifier (DOI)?
    • How do ORCIDs improve article metadata and discoverability?

    Learn More

    Keep checking Crossref LIVE18 for recorded sessions of this year's conference and see our author resources if you'd like to learn more about publishing with UTP Journals.

  • The Heritage Book Project: Selected Science Books

    In this final contribution to the University Press Week Blog Tour (November 12-17), Harriet Kim provides a selection of interesting science books that she recently brought back into print as part of UTP's Heritage Book Project. For today's theme of #TurnItUP: Science, Harriet provides some fascinating picks from our backlist.

    By Harriet Kim

    University of Toronto Press carries a rich history in the breadth and depth of scholarly, reference, and general interest books published since our founding in 1901. Expanding on our tradition of advancing knowledge, the Heritage Book Project aims to increase access to our books by bringing out-of-print titles back into circulation as ebooks and as print-on-demand paperbacks. Titles date from 1928 to 2011 and range in categories from health sciences and medicine to philosophy, anthropology, politics, mathematics, and literature. We are making these important heritage resources available for a new generation of readers and learners to discover and to continue outreach to academic communities in their engagement of critical and innovative scholarship.

    When I think of a new generation of readers and learners, I think of many of my friends, colleagues, and peers who are pursuing a variety of career paths and could possibly benefit from having these resources. I think of, for example, those pursuing careers in science – as science educators, climate change researchers, and epidemiologists – and the heritage titles that cater to their work.

    I also think of the readers and learners who could benefit from this series in a less traditional or obvious way. Working on this series and having firsthand access to these resources has been a learning process for me, too. I think about a younger version of myself with her love of science and her many dreams of becoming everything from astronomer to zoologist. As someone who pursued a different path from the sciences, this has been a unique way for me to be doing what I am doing in publishing but also continue chasing my curiosity of the sciences.

    Here is a roundup of some science titles from Heritage Book Project that piqued my curiosity:

    Forest Regeneration in Ontario: Based on a Review of Surveys Conducted in the Province during the Period 1918-1951 (1953) by R.C. Hosie, "presents a general view of the nature of tree reproduction on cut-over forest land, an analysis of the procedure in conducting and reporting regeneration surveys, and conclusions and recommendations for the conducting of future surveys.”

    The Snakes of Ontario (1957), by E.B.S Logier, gives an account of "the natural history of snakes, or how to identify those found in Ontario.”

    Bacteriology Primer in Air Contamination Control (1967) by V. Victor Kingsley, provides a basic overview of the “problems in bacteriology which would help in the understanding, handling, and moving of 'clean' (uncontaminated) air to and from critical areas.”

    The Life Puzzle: On Crystals and Organisms and on the Possibility of a Crystal as an Ancestor (1971), by A.G. Cairns-Smith, advances the author’s theories on the origin of life, with considerations of molecular biology and chemistry.

    The Natural Alien: Humankind and Environment (1993) by Neil Evernden, “evaluates the international environmental movement and the underlying assumptions that could doom it to failure.”

    Wild Things: Nature, Culture, and Tourism in Ontario, 1790-1914 (1995), by Patricia Jasen, “shows how the region now known as Ontario held special appeal for tourists seeking to indulge a passion for wild country or act out their fantasies of primitive life.”

    The Discovery of Insulin: The Twenty-fifth Anniversary Edition (2000), by Michael Bliss, recounts the fascinating story behind the discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921-22: "a story as much filled with fiery confrontation and intense competition as medical dedication and scientific genius.”

    The Sleep of Others and the Transformation of Sleep Research (2007), by Kenton Kroker, is the “first ever history of sleep research, drawing on a wide range of material to present the story of how an investigative field – at one time dominated by the study of dreams – slowly morphed into a laboratory-based discipline.”

    The magnitude of such a project is not lost on me – from the figurative weight of UTP’s history represented in this series to the literal weight of all the books that are sent for scanning! Since 2014, we have brought nearly 1,000 titles back into circulation and over 1,600 titles will end up in the Heritage Project. It has been and continues to be a tremendous effort supported by continuously improving scanning and printing technology and more importantly, many people at University of Toronto Press, University of Toronto libraries, and the Toronto Reference Library.

    Whether you are reading any of these titles out of interest (and maybe even indulging your nostalgia of a childhood dream) or as a way to support your research and work, I hope they will be invaluable learning resources for you, too.

    To continue on the final day of the University Press Week Blog Tour, check out posts by these other fine university presses:

    Johns Hopkins University Press
    Blog: https://www.press.jhu.edu/news/blog
    Twitter: @JHUPress

    Princeton University Press
    Blog: http://blog.press.princeton.edu/
    Twitter: @PrincetonUPress

    Rutgers University Press
    Blog: https://www.rutgersuniversitypress.org/category/news/
    Twitter: @RutgersUPress

    University of Colorado Press
    Blog: https://upcolorado.com/about-us/blog
    Twitter: @UPColorado

    Columbia University Press
    Blog: cupblog.org
    Twitter: @ColumbiaUP

    University of Georgia Press
    Blog: www.ugapress.wordpress.com
    Twitter: @UGAPress

  • Strategic, Agile, People-Powered Change – The New Growth Imperative

    By Ellen R. Auster and Lisa Hillenbrand

    Now more than ever, businesses require Stragility: Strategic, Agile, People-Powered Change. And yet silos, hierarchies, and politics get in the way. Careers stagnate, growth stalls, and organizations fall short on delivering their mission. We know people need to be both empowered and agile but we don’t know how to skill up our organization to deliver it. From our book Stragility, here are three actions you can take and recent examples of firms that have put them into practice.

    Sense and Shift Instead of Lock and Load

    So often in today’s business world, we lock and load on the first feasible solution and sell it up the hierarchy. American Express' Chief Marketing Officer, Elizabeth Rutledge, is embracing a new model. Her team recognized the need to re-skill the organization and created an agility training and a certification program. They have developed agile methodologies and work processes and they are creating shared ownership enabling people to make decisions on the spot, without the need to send them up the hierarchy.

    Marketers are collaborating like never before and finding “human connection moments” with each other and customers. The changes are enabling AMEX’s 55,000 employees to deliver their new promise of “Don’t live life without it” and meet growth objectives. (Source: Keynote talk by Elizabeth Rutledge, Association of National Advertisers, October 26, 2018)

    Inspire and Engage Instead of Tell and Sell

    Telling and selling ideas is tempting but without strong purpose and compelling stories and programs, real change will never happen. Disney continues to create passionate “cast members” who delight their customers year after year by encouraging them to exemplify the Disney magic. Take for example a recent story of a deaf child who was able to sign with Mickey and Minnie Mouse cast members that was shared widely inspiring both cast members and customers.

    And their #Dream Big Princess campaign is inspiring girls everywhere to be brave and intelligent and to lead, instead of waiting for their prince to come.

    Change Fitness Instead of Change Fatigue

    Faced with a barrage of change, it’s easy for people to get overwhelmed. CIGNA decided to do something about it. They are tackling the three biggest causes of illness (and lost productivity): opioid addiction, loneliness, and stress. And they have begun each program with their employees. Already 96% of employees have gotten an annual health assessment. Here’s CIGNA’s opiod announcement from May.

    Lisa Bacus, their Chief Marketing Officer, explains the program at the ANA meeting in Orlando, October 25, 2018.

    For more ideas on how your organization can be more agile and more effective, pick up a copy of Stragility at Amazon.com or contact the authors at stragilitychangemanagement.com to request a customized workshop or consultation.

    BIOS

    Lisa Hillenbrand is the founder of Lisa Hillenbrand & Associates. She previously served as Global Marketing Director at Procter & Gamble. She specializes in marketing, strategy and organization change interventions that return brands to growth. She led the team that “re-engineered” Procter & Gamble’s company-wide brand building approach. Hillenbrand has delivered keynotes for the AMA, Marketing Science Institute, and Thomas Edison Foundation, and has consulted with and led top rated workshops for Google, Facebook, Estée Lauder, ConAgra, and many others.

    Ellen R. Auster is Professor of Strategic Management and Executive Director of York Change Leadership at the Schulich School of Business at York University. She has more than 25 years of experience as an academic and consultant specializing in shared leadership, stakeholder inclusive, value creating approaches to change that cultivate the capabilities needed for continuous reinvention and ongoing success. She has published widely in journals including The Academy of Management Review, Management Science, Sloan Management Review, The Journal of Business Ethics, Organization Studies, Human Resource Management, Research Policy, and written four books.

  • The Enduring Power of University Press Publishing

    In this contribution to the University Press Week Blog Tour (November 12-17), our editor, Stephen Shapiro, reflects on the enduring power of university press publishing. When considering today's theme of #TurnItUP: History, Stephen goes beyond just our history list to explore the legacy of what we do as a publisher.

    By Stephen Shapiro

    The theme of today’s contribution to the University Press Week Blog Tour is #History. As one of three acquiring editors for history who work at University of Toronto Press, I assumed that I would write about some of the excellent history books that UTP publishes every year. Many of those books reflect the press’ mission to advance scholarly knowledge and our authors’ commitment to #TurnItUP by amplifying stories and voices from the margins, whether those are geographic, social, or temporal. Indigenous history, queer history, and migration and memory studies are only some of the areas where UTP is proud to bring important, often overlooked, issues to public attention.

    However, the more I dug into the press’ backlist to write about those themes, the more I was reminded that they were just a small slice of the publishing that University of Toronto Press has done over the past 117 years. A quick look uncovered some eclectic bestsellers from the press’ past, like Frank Parker Day’s novel Rockbound, first published in 1928 and re-issued in 1973 by UTP, which became a CanLit smash hit after it won the first CBC Canada Reads competition in 2005. Or E.H. Moss’s Flora of Alberta (revised by John G. Packer in 1983), which seems to still have a devoted following in that province. Other strong sellers include the works of Canadian Jesuit theologian Bernard Lonergan, whose papers are held at the Lonergan Research Institute at Toronto. UTP published the first volume of the Collected Works of Bernard Lonergan in 1988 and should complete the twenty-five volume series, with any luck, in 2020. It is only one of several major series at the press that have taken twenty or more years to complete (the eighty-nine volume Collected Works of Erasmus of Rotterdam, a truly herculean project, began in 1968 and is still ongoing here). Like many university presses, UTP has to balance obligations to stay the course with the need to encourage the latest trends in scholarship (like those fields mentioned above that barely existed in academia in 1968, when the Erasmus project began), but it’s humbling as an editor to think the manuscripts on my (virtual) desk today might still be relevant fifty-plus years from now.

    Of course, no editor goes into a project thinking they are handling a future classic. But I take comfort in knowing that, smash hit or not, the books UTP publishes will be out there, making a contribution to knowledge, fifty or more years on. That’s a consequence of unsung work all across the press, from the managing editors whose XML workflow helps us “future-proof” our e-books to the production department, printing our physical copies on acid-free, 100% post-consumer recycled paper, and a sales and marketing team that aims to put books not just in the hands of consumers today but also in libraries around the world. UTP’s own heritage is being preserved at the University of Toronto, where they fill 1,070 boxes spanning 450 linear metres (almost 1,500 linear feet) … so far. According to our website, right now the press has 4,898 different books either in print or forthcoming. With any luck, they’ll all still be available to #TurnItUP in another 117 years.

    To continue on Day Four of the University Press Week Blog Tour, check out posts by these other fine university presses:

    Wilfrid Laurier University Press
    Blog: https://www.wlupress.wlu.ca/Blog
    Twitter: @wlupress

    University of California Press
    Blog: https://www.ucpress.edu/blog/
    Twitter: @ucpress

    University of Nebraska Press
    Blog: https://unpblog.com/
    Twitter: @UnivNebPress

    University of Alabama Press
    Blog: https://uapressblog.wordpress.com/
    Twitter: @UnivofALPress

    Rutgers University Press
    Blog: https://www.rutgersuniversitypress.org/category/news/
    Twitter: @RutgersUPress

    Boydell & Brewer
    Blog: https://boydellandbrewer.com/blog/
    Twitter: @boydellbrewer

    Beacon Press
    Blog: https://www.beaconbroadside.com
    Twitter: @BeaconPressbks

    University Press of Kansas
    Blog: https://kansaspress.ku.edu/
    Twitter: @Kansas_Press

    Harvard University Press
    Blog: https://harvardpress.typepad.com/hup_publicity/
    Twitter: @Harvard_Press

    University of Georgia Press
    Blog: ugapress.wordpress.com
    Twitter: @UGAPress

    MIT Press
    Blog: https://mitpress.mit.edu/blog
    Twitter: @mitpress

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