Tag Archives: environment

  • How to Be an Environmental Steward

    In today’s contribution to the University Press Week Blog Tour (November 4-8), our Publisher’s Representative, Alex Keys, shares some advice on how to be an environmental steward – drawing from what he has learned in his role at UTP and in particular from the new edition of Global Ecopolitics: Crisis, Governance, and Justice by Peter J. Stoett.

    By Alex Keys

    There have been some interesting shifts in the public conversation about environmental issues over the past few years, especially about climate change. Worldwide climate marches have seen staggering attendance this past year, Greta Thunberg has appeared as an unflinching champion of climate action, and the UN IPCC report has given the international community a firm (if daunting) ten year deadline to completely re-organize the global economy around clean energy. Canada’s recent federal election saw every major party propose a plan to address climate change, and although the Conservative plan was rightly chided for having no teeth, even that party couldn’t ignore the issue altogether. All of this is encouraging.

    At the same time, I think climate change has become a slightly taboo water-cooler conversation even among those of us who believe it is a real, man-made threat. When I was growing up, my liberal family and friends talked about global warming a lot, with a righteousness fueled by the complete denialism coming from the other side. The news seemed to give both science and propaganda an equal hearing, and it felt like our big challenge was convincing everybody that the problem was real. Lately, even Republicans in the U.S. Senate don’t go smugly waving snowballs to prove that global warming is a hoax – instead, they just put all the blame on China and change the subject. They don’t want to think about it, but then again neither do most of us. The scale of the problem is so vast, the possible outcomes so depressing, and our current collective efforts so unequal to the task at hand, that it just isn’t a very pleasant thing to talk or think about. This is a big part of our problem.

    Peter J. Stoett, in his second edition of Global Ecopolitics: Crisis, Governance, and Justice (2019), notes in his foreword that anxious uncertainty is a major theme he seeks to address. We know, he says, that “we are slowly, by a billion cuts, diminishing the future opportunities of the next generation. We realize that some of the more pressing environmental problems, on a local and global scale, are literally out of our control.” We are losing faith in the model of eternal economic growth and the promise of technology to solve all our problems. Yet our governments seem to have little to show in the way of a plan.

    I think that, on an individual level, we find other release valves for this mounting mental pressure. We just can’t go about our daily lives thinking about the melting ice-caps all the time. If we really believed we were in an emergency, at a deep, personal level, we would stop going to work and stock up on food and bottled water instead. In my role as a publisher’s rep, I recently spoke to a professor who teaches about the environment, and I asked her if her students are too anxious to face the material. She told me they aren’t – they mostly believe technology will solve all the problems.

    This is not how to be an environmental steward. Sitting on your hands and hoping for a problem to be fixed isn’t much better than denying a problem exists at all. But I’m no pessimist, and neither is Peter J. Stoett. He takes comfort in the “tremendous amount of work being done by diplomats, scientists, activists, and bureaucrats” to put together a global response. They are educated on the problem, they have ideas for solutions, and they are motivated to overcome political divisions to realize them. Stoett’s book focuses on ecopolitics, “at the intersection of ecology and politics at various levels,” and on global governance, specifically multilateral agreements between states. Climate change is only one of his case studies: he also discusses biodiversity reduction, deforestation, the ocean crisis, freshwater scarcity, and other alarming topics. He agrees with many observers that these dire circumstances require big societal changes, though he emphasizes that “whatever forms of governance follow the recognition of crisis, justice must be a primal animating factor in our collective response if we expect adaptive institutions to carry a legitimacy and prove sustainable.” It’s a great point, and the animating idea behind proposals like the American “Green New Deal,” which would package emissions-reductions with a jobs guarantee and other progressive measures. We seem to be in the middle of a global backslide into authoritarianism, and liberal democracies will need to deal with the environment and severe social inequality at the same time if they want to preserve themselves.

    Multilateral agreements between states tend to feel very abstract and far from our control. What, then, should we do as individuals? Can’t we each focus on doing our part to reduce our own individual footprint?

    I just don’t think that’s the right thing for us to focus on. Not to say that there’s anything wrong with driving less and riding your bike more, or cutting down your consumption of meat (the most dramatic change you can make to reduce your personal footprint). But ever since I was a kid, we’ve had an Earth Day every year and turned off the lights for a few hours. We’ve replaced most incandescent bulbs, we’ve recycled and composted, and gosh-darn it we’ve even gotten rid of plastic straws. Lo and behold, the oceans are still full of plastic and the planet is still steadily warming. Trees are still being cut down and burned at a greater rate than we are planting them. These individual lifestyle adjustments are like planning five minutes of work a day on a 500 page manuscript due next week. At a certain point, you have to realize you won’t make your deadline.

    A good environmental steward takes care to reduce her own waste, protect local ecologies, and raise awareness of bad practices. All of that is good, and we should all do our individual part. But at our point in history, in the early stages of our climate emergency and our mass extinction event, individual action is insufficient. Reorganizing the economy is a collective task; indeed, a global one. I suspect that our focus on individual lifestyle changes for the past few decades has acted as a relief valve for our fear and anger, forces that could have powered the engine of a popular movement to confront these problems in a meaningful way. But it isn’t too late.

    Peter J. Stoett makes a case for “restrained optimism” about the potential of global governance – political coordination of various forms at the global level – to address our ecological crises. The great and terrible thing about politics is that it is made out of people; scared, lazy, sometimes courageous, sometimes unrelenting. If any of us want to do our individual part, it must be to help push society in the right direction. Environmental stewardship means:

    1. Voting. Make climate change and plastic pollution ballot box issues, and write your MP when the election is over to make sure they know you care about them.

    2. Giving your time, your money, your energy, or anything you can to an activist group. Go to marches, get mad, and stay mad.

    3. Being courageous in the face of change.

    We have ten years to organize a global response. This is not a technological problem or a problem of limited resources – we live in the wealthiest and most advanced societies in human history. This problem is political, and we must take it seriously as such. We should feel no little burst of self-satisfaction from putting a clean clamshell in a blue bin until all the ecological alarms stop blaring.

    ***

    To continue on Day Three of the University Press Week Blog Tour, check out posts by these other fine university presses:

    University of Pittsburgh Press
    Blog: https://upittpress.org/university-press-week-2019-four-ways-to-be-a-better-environmental-steward/
    Twitter: @UPittPress

    Duke University Press
    Blog: https://dukeupress.wordpress.com/2019/11/06/university-press-week-how-to-be-an-environmental-steward
    Twitter: @DukePress

    Columbia University Press
    Blog: https://www.cupblog.org/
    Twitter: @ColumbiaUP

    University of California Press
    Blog: https://www.ucpress.edu/blog/
    Twitter: @ucpress

    Yale University Press
    Blog: http://blog.yalebooks.com/
    Twitter: @yalepress

    University of South Carolina Press
    Blog: facebook.com/USC.Press
    Twitter: @uscpress

    Bucknell University Press
    Blog: upress.blogs.bucknell.edu
    Twitter: @BucknellUPress

    Oregon State University Press
    Blog: http://osupress.oregonstate.edu/blog

    University Press of Mississippi
    Blog: https://www.upress.state.ms.us/News
    Twitter: @upmiss

    University of Minnesota Press
    Blog: uminnpressblog.com
    Twitter: @UMinnPress

    Harvard University Press
    Blog: https://harvardpress.typepad.com/hup_publicity/
    Twitter: @harvard_Press

  • From Indonesian Haze to Uruguayan Pulp Mills

    To mark the publication of Cases of Conflict: Transboundary Disputes and the Development of International Environmental Law, the author, Allen L. Springer, discusses the book’s genesis and his decision to adopt a case study approach to elucidate its ideas and concepts.

    cases of conflictCases of Conflict has been in the works for over 25 years. The idea for the project came at a conference in Vienna in 1990, where a group of European and North American scholars were discussing the development of international environmental law in the days leading up to the Rio Conference on Environment and Development. I was among those arguing that emerging rules of customary international law provide an important foundation for holding states accountable for the extraterritorial impact of activities taking place within territory they presumably control. Yet we were meeting in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, which rules of international law had failed to prevent and where the states downwind of the reactor had not even attempted to bring claims against the Soviet Union for the damages they had suffered. Squaring the alleged rules of international law with the reality of state behavior was not an easy proposition.

    It became clear to me that what was needed was closer examination of how states actually respond to international environmental problems. I was convinced that detailed case studies offered the best way to explore the connection between norms and state behavior in the depth and complexity the problem deserves. Building on new collaborative research linking the fields of international law and international relations, I decided to focus on six transboundary environmental disputes. My goal was not to try to measure the impact of international law, but to examine critically the role that it plays in real-world situations, deliberately choosing times of conflict when vital and often competing interests are at stake.

    Forty years of teaching great Bowdoin undergraduates has only reinforced my belief in the power of rich case studies to bring to life important ideas and concepts. Too often principles of international environmental law appear simply as abstractions, rules embraced by diplomats in aspirational agreements, but often not evident on the ground. The rationale behind the precautionary principle is easily explained, but how it can become a source of international dispute is understood much better by following the debate between Ireland and the United Kingdom over the risk posed by new technologies to recycle nuclear waste.

    The project required case studies that are interesting, important, and balanced. The disputes studied here involve situations where serious pollution has already taken place and others where there is simply the risk that it might occur. Collectively, they examine different media (atmosphere, rivers, oceans) and different types of environmental effects, from transboundary air pollution to overfishing. They also span different geographical regions and involve disputants with varying degrees of political and economic power. To the extent the disputes have been resolved, the case studies reflect a range of dispute settlement techniques, from contentious bilateral diplomacy to formal adjudication before the International Court of Justice.

    Case studies also need context and analysis. The first chapter locates the argument being made in Cases of Conflict within the broader intellectual framework in which international environmental law is currently being developed and studied. The second traces the evolution of international environmental law from its nineteenth-century origins to the institutional world of the mid-1990s in which the first of the disputes began. A final chapter draws from these experiences broader conclusions about the nature of transboundary environmental disputes and the role they can play in shaping the development of international environmental law.

    Emerging is a dynamic body of international practice, produced not just by governments but also by intergovernmental organizations, courts, multinational corporations, and NGOs. For all of them, the language of law is important. Even in times of conflict, their arguments and actions help construct a body of law that is more robust and responsive to the environmental challenges we face.

    Allen L. Springer is Professor in the Department of Government and Legal Studies at Bowdoin College.

  • Excerpt: Environmental Inequality: Access to Water

    Through the Lens of AnthropologyFor the final entry in a series of four excerpts, all leading up to the publication of Through the Lens of Anthropology: An Introduction to Human Evolution and Culture by Robert J. Muckle and Laura Tubelle de González, we would like to share part of the book’s discussion of social inequality.

    Through the Lens of Anthropology is an introductory four-field textbook with a fresh perspective, a lively narrative, and plenty of popular topics that are sure to engage students. The following excerpt is taken from Chapter 12: Politics: Keeping Order. Water is the focus of these two pages, and in particular inequality of access to water. This is just a small portion of the book’s section on social inequality, but it provides a good indication of how the book incorporates its twin themes of food and sustainability into all areas of anthropology.

    If you have ever wondered how different parts of the world rely on water to survive, this excerpt is worth a read.

    Download the excerpt here.

    Note: If you are scheduled to teach an introductory anthropology course, please email requests@utphighereducation.com to request an examination copy of Through the Lens of Anthropology. This is a textbook that is interesting to read, manageable to teach, and that succeeds at igniting interest in anthropology as a discipline. We would be more than happy to give you the opportunity to review it for yourself!

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