Canadian Liver Journal

Edited by Eric M. Yoshida

Published Quarterly | E-ISSN 2561-4444

This Journal is online at:

CanLivJ Online

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The goal of the Canadian Liver Journal, as the official journal of the Canadian Association for the Study of Liver, is to promote research, education and clinical care in liver disease within the Canadian and International Communities. The Canadian Liver Journal welcomes original clinical and translational research, review articles, case reports, commentaries and letters to the editor on all aspects of liver disease. The Canadian Liver Journal is a peer reviewed journal with open access.
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  • Editorial board

    Editor-in-Chief

    Eric M. Yoshida, University of British Columbia

    Deputy Editor

    Natasha Chandok, Western University

    Associate Editors

    Marc Bilodeau
    Université de Montréal

    Carla Coffin
    University of Calgary

    Kevork Peltekian
    Dalhousie University

    Richard Schreiber
    University of British Columbia

    Editorial Board Members

    Bandar Al Judaibi
    University of Rochester

    Konstantin Carvellas
    University of Alberta

    Tse-Ling Fong
    University of Southern California

    Saumya Jayakumar
    University of California, San Diego

    Vladimir Marquez-Azalagara
    University of British Columbia

    Ye H. Oo
    University of Birmingham, UK

    Hemant Shah
    University of Toronto

    Phillip Wong
    McGill University

    Honourary Editors

    Paul Adams
    Western University

    Samuel Lee
    University of Calgary

    Nahum Mendez-Sanchez
    Autonomous National University of Mexico

  • Open Access Policy

    Canadian Liver Journal is a fully open access journal.

  • Advertising

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    Advertising and Marketing Coordinator
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    Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T8
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    Tel: (416) 667–7766
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    Email: advertising@utpress.utoronto.ca

  • Author resources

    The Canadian Liver Journal (Can Liv J) is an open access publication that is owned by, and serves as the official journal of, the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL). It will consider for publication original papers, controlled clinical trials, review articles, and case reports concerning research, education, and clinical care in liver disease. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they are submitted solely to Can Liv J and that none of the material contained in the manuscripts has been published previously or is under consideration for publication elsewhere, excluding abstracts. Written approval by the appropriate human and animal ethics review committee must be stated in the manuscript. Statements and opinions are the responsibility of the authors. Can Liv J subscribes to the guidelines for reporting of randomized clinical trials published as the CONSORT statement (JAMA 1996;276:637–639). Authors are advised to review this document if they are preparing and submitting randomized clinical trials for consideration for publication.

    Manuscript Submission Process

    All Can Liv J submissions, reviews, and editorial work is done through our online peer review management system, ScholarOne Manuscripts. At this time, we would ask that you please contribute content to the journal through ScholarOne Manuscripts.

    If you are a new contributor to the journal, please visit https://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/canlivj and select “Create An Account” to create a new account. You will be asked to fill in a brief contributor form. Be sure to click the “Finish” button to save your data. You will then be able to log in, using the username and password you created, and view the contributor homepage, which is the starting point for all functions available to you as a contributor.

    If you are a returning contributor to the journal, please visit https://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/canlivj and follow the prompts to log in.

    For technical support, please visit http://mchelp.manuscriptcentral.com/gethelpnow/ or contact ts.mcsupport@thomson.com.

    Submission and Publication Fees

    The journal is currently waiving all submission fees. Once accepted, authors will pay a publication fee. For 2018, Can Liv J will be accepting manuscripts for an introductory rate of $1,500 for CASL members, and $2,000 for non-members. Information on membership can be found at http://www.hepatology.ca/.

    Full-text articles will be available at https://canlivj.utpjournals.press/loi/canlivj.

    Manuscript Requirements

    Manuscripts are to be saved in a single text file, saved as .doc or .docx. All manuscripts must be accompanied by a covering letter detailing what is being submitted and indicating the author to whom we should address correspondence and page proofs in the case of multiple authors (please include a contact address, telephone/fax numbers, and e-mail address). Abbreviations must be defined at first mention in the text. All measurements should be in SI units. Appropriate headings and subheadings should be provided in the methods, results, and discussion sections. References, figures, and tables should be cited in the text with numbers assigned according to the order of mention in the text. Arrange the manuscript as follows: title page, structured abstract and keywords, introduction, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, references, figure captions and legends, and tables. Do not import figures into the text file; they should be supplied in separate image files as detailed below. Number the pages consecutively, beginning with the title page as 1. The last name of the corresponding author should be typed at the top of each page.

    Title Page

    In addition to the main title, a short running title of 55 characters or less and the authors’ names (including full, first or middle names) along with their qualifications and affiliations, should appear on the title page. Include the name of the institution from which the work originated.

    Abstract and Keywords

    On a separate page, type a structured abstract of no more than 300 words for major articles (including systematic review articles such as a meta-analysis but a narrative review article may have an unstructured abstract). Abstracts for case reports need not be structured and should be a maximum of 150 words. The abstract should be substantive rather than purely descriptive. Abbreviate only standard units of measurement. At the end of the abstract, include a list of 5 to 10 keywords for indexing purposes.

    Acknowledgements

    Brief acknowledgements may appear at the end of the text, before the references.

    Contributions

    Author contributions to the article should appear after the Acknowledgments. They should be structured according to the CRediT taxonomy. For example:

    Conceptualization, SCP and SYW; Methodology, AB, SCP, and SYW; Investigation, ME, ANV, NAV, SCP, and SYW; Writing – Original Draft, SCP and SYW; Writing – Review & Editing, SCP and SYW; Funding Acquisition, SCP and SYW; Resources, MEV and CKB; Supervision, AB, NLW, and AAD.

    References

    Identify references in the text by Arabic numerals in parentheses on the line. Type the reference list double-spaced, separate from the text, with each reference numbered consecutively in the order in that it is mentioned in the text. References cited in figures and tables, but not in the text, should also be numbered following the text references. Personal communications, manuscripts in preparation, and other unpublished data should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text in parentheses. Identify abstracts with the abbreviation ‘Abst’ and letters to the editor by ‘Lett’ in parentheses; abstracts should not be cited if they are more than 2 years old. The style of references is that of Index Medicus. Journal references should contain inclusive page numbers; book references, specific page numbers; and Web site references, the date of last update, if available, and date of access (references to other types of electronic documents should include the format of the document). Abbreviations of journals should conform to those used in Index Medicus, National Library of Medicine. 2.1, 2017. URLs should be included for all references publicly accessible via the Internet. The style and punctuation of references are as follows:

    Periodicals:

    List all authors if 6 or less; otherwise list first 3 and add ‘et al’. Do not use periods after authors’ initials.

    1. Kohl P, Day K, Noble D, et al. Cellular mechanisms of cardiac mechano-electric feedback in a mathematical model. Can J Cardiol 1998;14:111–9.

    Books:

    1. Svensson LG, Crawford ES. Cardiovascular and Vascular Disease of the Aorta. Toronto: WB Saunders Company, 1997:184–5.

    Chapter in book:

    1. Trehan S, Anderson JL. Thrombolytic therapy. In: Yusuf S, Cairns JA, eds. Evidence Based Cardiology. London: BMJ Books, 1998:419–44.

    Web sites:

    1. National Library of Medicine. Images from the History of Medicine. www.ihm.nlm.nih.gov/ (Accessed January 5, 1999).

    Tables

    Use the table tool in Word to create tables on a separate page from the rest of the text with the table number above the table and explanatory notes below. Table numbers should appear in Arabic numerals and should correspond to the order of the tables in the text. If abbreviations are used, an alphabetical listing must be included in the footnote. Written permission from the publisher to reproduce any previously published tables must be included.

    Figure Captions and Legends

    Place at the end of the document (following references) with figure numbers corresponding to the order in which figures are presented in the text. Identify all abbreviations appearing on figures in alphabetical order at the end of each legend. Enough information should be given to allow interpretation of the figure without reference to the text. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to reproduce any previously published figures.

    Figures

    • All figures have to be submitted in their original formats. The lettering, decimals, lines and other details on the figures should be sufficiently large to withstand reduction and reproduction.
    • Images must have a resolution of 300 dpi or higher, or be at least 25 inches wide.
    • Graphs must be created using Microsoft Word (.doc/.docx), Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt/.pptx), Microsoft Excel (.xls), or Adobe Illustrator (.ai or .eps). These should then be saved as a .pdf or .eps file.
    • Any photographs or graphics imported into your figure must also be submitted separately during figure upload on ScholarOne. Photographs and graphics should be submitted as graphic digital files saved as a high-resolution .jpeg, .tiff or .pdf file. Place crop marks on photomicrographs to show the essential field and designate special features with arrows (which must contrast with the background).

    Policy Issues

    All statements and opinions are the responsibility of the authors. With submission of the manuscript, a letter of transmittal must indicate that all authors have participated in the research, and have reviewed and agree with the content of the article. An Author Contributions statement using the CRediT taxonomy must be supplied with the article.

    Conflict of Interest

    All authors must disclose any commercial associations or other arrangements (e.g., financial compensation received, patient-licensing arrangements, potential to profit, consultancy, stock ownership, etc.) that may pose a conflict of interest in connection with the article using the Conflict of Interest form that is available on ScholarOne during the submission process. This information will be made available to the editor and reviewers, and may be included at the end of the article at the editor’s discretion.

    Ethics of Human Experiments

    If human subjects are involved, the text must indicate that all gave informed consent and that the protocol was approved by the institutional review committee. Note that the journal does not publish articles involving animal experimentation.

    Proofs

    Authors should keep a copy of their original manuscripts as page proofs will be sent to them without the manuscript. In order to avoid delays in publication, authors are required to return proofs within 48 hours of receiving them by e-mail.

    Article Types

    Can Liv J publishes several different types of articles, including

    • Original Research Articles
    • Case Studies
    • Review Articles
    • Invited Commentary
    • Editorial/Letters to the Editor
    • Association Note

    Specific Requirements by Article Type

    Article Category Description* Limits
    Original Research Original, previously unpublished research focused on patients, organisms, diseases, health services, and populations in research areas relevant to microbiology and infectious disease 3,500 words; 40 references
    Case Studies Reports on an important, complex, or unusual presentation, disease, or treatment 2,000 words; 25 references
    Review Articles Literature reviews aiming to provide an in-depth view of a particular topic of study. 3,000 words; 75 references
    Invited Commentaries Commentary and analysis concerning an article in the issue in which they appear 750 words; 10 references
    Letters to the Editor Letters from readers commenting on articles recently published in the Journal 400 words; 5 references

    *All articles should be formatted in Vancouver style

    Original Research Articles

    Can Liv J publishes original, previously unpublished articles on research, education and clinical care in liver disease within the Canadian and International Communities. Research may be conducted using any method (e.g., quantitative or qualitative methods) that is appropriate to the research question(s) posed. Translated research will be considered for publication on a case-by-case basis.

    Maximum length: 7,500 words (longer, only by agreement of the editors), including abstracts and references.

    Original research article structure

    Element Components Recommended Length
    Title Page   Main title and the authors’ names (including full, first and middle names) along with their qualifications and affiliations should appear on the title page. Include the name of the institution from which the work originated. Clearly indicate the corresponding author. In addition to the main title, include a short running title of 55 characters or less
    Abstract The abstract should contain: Background: This should include a clear statement of the aim of the study and the research question. Methods: This should include the research design, setting of the study, and participants, including number participating and criteria for selection, entry, and exclusion. The interventions, if applicable, should be clearly outlined, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures. Results: The main findings should be quantified with 95% confidence intervals and the number needed to treat or harm, if applicable. Absolute, rather than relative, risks are preferable. Conclusions: This should state the overall conclusions that can be drawn from the study as well as any limitations and needs for further inquiry. ~250 words
    Keywords · Relevant terms that direct readers to the article Between 5 and 10
    Introduction · Explains the topic of study · Provides context in which the research arose · States the objective of the study ~400 words
    Methods · Includes setting, patients, study type/design, and main measurements or outcomes · The complete study protocol and/or study documents (e.g., questionnaires) may be included in the appendix  
    Results · Reports the result for the main outcome reported in absolute and relative terms (when possible) · Includes confidence intervals and other measures of statistical significance · Quantitative results should be arranged in tables (not text)  
    Interpretation · Should summarize the main results of the study, discuss the findings in light of other related studies in the literature, explore limitations of the study, and indicate future directions for inquiry  

    Randomized trials

    Can Liv J asks that reports of randomized controlled trials adhere to CONSORT guidelines and be registered in a clinical trials registry.

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should attempt to answer a focused question and adhere to PRISMA methods.

    Observational studies

    Observational studies should seek to answer a specific, pre-defined research question and primary outcomes should be outlined in a protocol before the start of the study. Observational studies should follow the STROBE guidelines. Those that make use of routinely collected data should also follow the RECORD reporting guidelines.

    Case Reports

    Case reports look at an important, complex, or unusual presentation, disease, or treatment in the context on a real clinical example with the aim of conveying concise, accurate, and relevant information related to the case to the readership.

    Case reports structure

    Element Components Recommended Length
    Abstract Overview of the topic of discussion (descriptive abstract) ~150 words
    Keywords Relevant terms that direct readers to the article Between 5 and 10
    Case Presentation Real case presentation ~500 words
    Discussion Discussion of the underling condition  

    Review Articles

    Review articles are critical evaluations of previously published research or policy. They synthesize the relevant literature on the topic to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the topic of study through summary, classification or analysis.

    Review article structure

    Element Components Recommended Length
    Abstract · For Narrative Reviews: Overview of the topic of discussion (descriptive abstract) · For Systematic and Best Evidence Reviews: The abstract should contain: Background: This should include a clear statement of the aim of the study and the research question. Methods: This should include the research design, setting of the study, and participants, including number participating and criteria for selection, entry, and exclusion. The interventions, if applicable, should be clearly outlined, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures. Results: The main findings should be quantified with 95% confidence intervals and the number needed to treat or harm, if applicable. Absolute, rather than relative, risks are preferable. Conclusions: This should state the overall conclusions that can be drawn from the study as well as any limitations and needs for further inquiry. ~150 words
    Keywords Relevant terms that direct readers to the article Between 5 and 10
    Introduction Provide context for the review, identifies the focus/research question, and explain the structure of the article  
    Materials and Methods Outline the data sources, search strategies, selection criteria, number of studies screened and number included, and any methods used to analyze the data.  
    Main Body Outline the findings of the literature review.  
    Conclusion Answer any research questions outlined in the introduction, discuss the any implications of the findings, and posit any unresolved questions.  

    Commentaries

    These concise articles provide commentary and analysis concerning an article in the issue of the journal in which they appear

    Commentaries structure

    Element Components Recommended Length
    Keywords Relevant terms that direct readers to the article Between 5 and 10
    Commentary Discussion of the relevant article ~750 words

    Letters to the Editor

    Letters to the Editor provide a forum for readers to respond to recently published articles in the journal. They are also a place to publish concise articles, such as reports of novel cases.

    Letters to the editor structure

    Element Components Recommended Length
    Abstract Overview of the topic of discussion (descriptive abstract) ~150 words
    Keywords Relevant terms that direct readers to the article Between 5 and 10
    Letter to the Editor Response to an earlier article or presentation and discussion of a novel case. ~400 words

    Further Author Resources

    UTP offers a compilation of advice, guidelines and valuable information for authors as they are choosing where and how to submit their work for publication. Our online author resources contain information on the publication process, how/where/what to submit for publication, promotion, how to contact UTP Journals and much more. http://www.utpjournals.press/resources/for-authors

  • Permission information

    Content (articles, reviews, editorials, commentaries, etc.) published in the Official Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada cannot be shared, copied, or redistributed without explicit permission from the publisher. To request permission to use the material, please contact:

    University of Toronto Press - Journals Division
    5201 Dufferin Street
    Toronto, ON M3H 5T8 Canada
    Tel: (416) 667–7777 ext:7849
    Fax: (416) 667–7881
    journal.permissions@utpress.utoronto.ca