Intimate Integration: A History of the Sixties Scoop and the Colonization of Indigenous Kinship

By Allyson D. Stevenson

© 2020

Privileging Indigenous voices and experiences, Intimate Integration documents the rise and fall of North American transracial adoption projects, including the Adopt Indian and Métis Project and the Indian Adoption Project. The author argues that the integration of adopted Indian and Métis children mirrored the new direction in post-war Indian policy and welfare services. She illustrates how the removal of Indigenous children from Indigenous families and communities took on increasing political and social urgency, contributing to what we now call the "Sixties Scoop."

Intimate Integration utilizes an Indigenous gender analysis to identify the gendered operation of the federal Indian Act and its contribution to Indigenous child removal, over-representation in provincial child welfare systems, and transracial adoption. Specifically, women and children’s involuntary enfranchisement through marriage, as laid out in the Indian Act, undermined Indigenous gender and kinship relationships. Making profound contributions to the history of settler-colonialism in Canada, Intimate Integration sheds light on the complex reasons behind persistent social inequalities in child welfare.

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Product Details

  • Series: Studies in Gender and History
  • World Rights
  • Page Count: 320 pages
  • Dimensions: 6.0in x 1.0in x 9.0in
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Quick Overview

Intimate Integration is an important analysis of the "Sixties Scoop" and post-World War II child welfare legislation in North America.

Intimate Integration: A History of the Sixties Scoop and the Colonization of Indigenous Kinship

By Allyson D. Stevenson

© 2020

Privileging Indigenous voices and experiences, Intimate Integration documents the rise and fall of North American transracial adoption projects, including the Adopt Indian and Métis Project and the Indian Adoption Project. The author argues that the integration of adopted Indian and Métis children mirrored the new direction in post-war Indian policy and welfare services. She illustrates how the removal of Indigenous children from Indigenous families and communities took on increasing political and social urgency, contributing to what we now call the "Sixties Scoop."

Intimate Integration utilizes an Indigenous gender analysis to identify the gendered operation of the federal Indian Act and its contribution to Indigenous child removal, over-representation in provincial child welfare systems, and transracial adoption. Specifically, women and children’s involuntary enfranchisement through marriage, as laid out in the Indian Act, undermined Indigenous gender and kinship relationships. Making profound contributions to the history of settler-colonialism in Canada, Intimate Integration sheds light on the complex reasons behind persistent social inequalities in child welfare.

Continue Reading Read Less

Product Details

  • Series: Studies in Gender and History
  • World Rights
  • Page Count: 320 pages
  • Dimensions: 6.0in x 1.0in x 9.0in
  • Author Information

    Allyson D. Stevenson is an assistant professor in the Department of Politics and International Studies at the University of Regina.
  • Table of contents

    Prologue

    Introduction

    1. The Bleeding Heart of Settler Colonialism 

    Indigenous Legal Orders and the Indian Act 
    From wáhkôhtowin to Transracial Adoption 

    2. Adoptive Kinship and Belonging 

    Gender and Family Life in Cree Métis Saskatchewan 
    The Emergence of the Euro-Canadian Adoption Paradigm 
    Indigenous Adoption and Euro-Canadian Law 

    3. Rehabilitating the “Subnormal [Métis] Family” in Saskatchewan 

    4. The Green Lake Children’s Shelter Experiment: From Institutionalization to Integration in Saskatchewan 

    The Social Work Profession and the Rationalized Logics of Indigenous Child Removal in Saskatchewan 

    5. Post-War Liberal Citizenship and the Colonization of Indigenous Kinship 

    The 1951 Indian Act Revisions and the rise of “Jurisdictional Disputes” 

    6. Child Welfare as System and Lived Experience 

    Adopting a Solution to the Indian Problem 

    7. Saskatchewan’s Indigenous Resurgence and the Restoration of Indigenous Kinship and Caring 

    8. Confronting Cultural Genocide in the 1980s

    Conclusion: Intimate Indigenization 

    Epilogue: Coming Home 

    Bibliography 

    Primary Sources
    Interviews 
    Newspapers 

    Government Documents 

    Statues, Regulations, and Court Cases 
    Statutes of Canada 
    Saskatchewan Statues 
    Statutes of the United States 
    Archival Series 
    Printed Government Documents 

    Canada. Department of Citizenship and Immigration. Indian Affairs Branch. Annual Reports, 1950–1965 

    Printed Primary Sources 
    Secondary Sources 
    Websites

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