Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World, Third Edition

Edited by Barbara H. Rosenwein

© 2018

The third edition of Reading the Middle Ages retains the strengths of previous editions—thematic and geographical diversity, clear and informative introductions, and close integration with A Short History of the Middle Ages—and adds significant new material on the Mediterranean region, as well as new readings from the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. The “Reading through Looking” sections, designed to showcase how historians study medieval material culture, are expanded and reorganized with a special focus on material objects and weapons and warfare in the Middle Ages. The stunning color insert has been updated, several new maps have been produced, and a new genealogy on the Islamic world has been included.

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  • Page Count: 528 pages
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Reading the Middle Ages is well-known for providing thematic and geographical diversity, clear and informative introductions, and close integration with A Short History of the Middle Ages.

Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World, Third Edition

Edited by Barbara H. Rosenwein

© 2018

The third edition of Reading the Middle Ages retains the strengths of previous editions—thematic and geographical diversity, clear and informative introductions, and close integration with A Short History of the Middle Ages—and adds significant new material on the Mediterranean region, as well as new readings from the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. The “Reading through Looking” sections, designed to showcase how historians study medieval material culture, are expanded and reorganized with a special focus on material objects and weapons and warfare in the Middle Ages. The stunning color insert has been updated, several new maps have been produced, and a new genealogy on the Islamic world has been included.

Continue Reading Read Less

Product Details

  • Division: Higher Education
  • World Rights
  • Page Count: 528 pages
  • Illustrations: 22
  • Dimensions: 6.0in x 0.0in x 9.0in
  • Author Information

    Barbara H. Rosenwein is Professor in the Department of History at Loyola University Chicago. She is the author of several books, including Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (2006), Negotiating Space: Power, Restraint, and Privileges of Immunity in Early Medieval Europe (1999), and Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World (second edition, 2014).
  • Table of contents

    Preface
    Abbreviations and Symbols
    Abbreviations for the Authorized Version of the Bible

    I. Prelude: The Roman World Transformed (c.300-c.600) 

    A Christianized Empire
    1.1 Toleration or favoritism? The Edict of Milan (313)
    1.2 Law: The Theodosian Code (438)
    1.3 Plague: Gregory the Great, Letter to Bishop Dominic of Carthage (600) 

    Heresy and Orthodoxy
    1.4 Heretics: Manichaean Texts (4th cent.)
    1.5 Orthodoxy’s declaration: The Nicene Creed (325) 

    Patristic Thought
    1.6 Conversion: Augustine, Confessions (397-401)
    1.7 Relating this world to the next: Augustine, The City of God (413-426)
    1.8 Monasticism: The Benedictine Rule (c.530-c.560) 

    Saintly Models
    1.9 The virginal life: Jerome, Letter 24 (To Marcella) (384)    
    1.10 The eremitical life: Athanasius, The Life of St. Antony of Egypt (357)
    1.11 The active life: Sulpicius Severus, The Life of St. Martin of Tours (397)
    1.12 The cult of saints: Gregory of Tours, The Life of Monegundis (580s)         

    Barbarian Kingdoms
    1.13 Gothic Italy as Rome’s heir: Cassiodorus, Variae (State Papers) (c.507-536)
    1.14 The conversion of the Franks: Bishop Avitus of Vienne, Letter to Clovis (508?)
    1.15 Gothic Spain converts: The Third Council of Toledo (589)
    1.16 Merovingian Gaul’s bishop-historian: Gregory of Tours, Histories (576–594) 

    Timeline for Chapter One

    II. The Emergence of Sibling Cultures (c.600-c.750) 

    The Resilience of Byzantium
    2.1 The Siege of Constantinople: The Easter Chronicle (630)
    Map 2.1 The Siege of Constantinople
    2.2 Purifying practice: The Quinisext Council (691/2)
    2.3 The iconoclastic argument: The Synod of 754         

    The Formation of the Islamic World
    2.4 Pre-Islamic Arabic poetry: Al-A‘sha, Bid Hurayra Farewell (before 625)
    2.5 The sacred text: Qur’an Suras 1, 53:1–18, 81, 87, 96, 98 (c.610–622)
    2.6 Muslim conquests: The Chronicle of John of Nikiu (c. 690)
    Map 2.2 The Muslim Conquest of Egypt
    2.7 Umayyad diplomacy: The Treaty of Tudmir (713)     
    2.8 Administration: Letters to ‘Abd Allah b. As‘ad (c.730-750) 
    2.9 Praising the caliph: Al-Akhtal, The Tribe Has Departed (c.692)  

    The Impoverished but Inventive West
    2.10 The private penitential tradition: The Penitential of Finnian (late 6th cent.)
    2.11 A world explained by words: Isidore of Seville, Etymologies (c.615-c.630)    
    2.12 A royal saint: The Life of Queen Balthild (c.680)    
    2.13 Reforming the Continental church: Letters to Boniface (723-726)   
    2.14 Creating a Roman Christian identity for England: Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731) 

    Timeline for Chapter Two    

    III. Creating New Identities (c.750-c.900)

    The Material Basis of Society
    3.1 Manors in the West: Polyptyque of the Church of Saint Mary of Marseille (814-815)    
    3.2 The Byzantine Countryside: The Life of Saint Philaretos (821/822)
    Map 3.1 Major European Slave Exports (700-900)
    3.3 The sale of a slave in Italy: A Contract of Sale (725) 

    A Multiplicity of Heroes
    3.4 Charlemagne as Roman emperor: Einhard, The Life of Charlemagne (825-826?)
    3.5 An Abbasid victory in verse: Abu Tammam, The sword gives truer tidings (838)
    3.6 Mothers and fathers: Dhuoda, Handbook for Her Son (841-843)
    3.7 A Christian hero in northern Iberia: The Chronicle of Alfonso III (early 880s)
    3.8 Celebrating local leaders: Abbo of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Battles of the City of Paris (late 9th cent.) 

    Religion and Politics
    3.9 An early view of the Prophet: Muhammad ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad (754-767)
    3.10 Muhammad’s words in the hadith: Al-Bukhari, On Fasting (9th cent.)
    3.11 The pope and the Carolingians: Pope Stephen II, Letters to King Pippin III (755-756)    
    3.12 Modeling the state on Old Testament Israel: The Admonitio Generalis (789)
    3.13 The Slavic conversion: Constantine/Cyril, Prologue to the Gospel (863-867)    
    3.14 The Bulgarian Khan in Byzantine guise: Seal of Boris-Michael (864-889)    
    3.15 The Bulgarians adopt Christianity: Pope Nicholas I, Letter to Answer the Bulgarians’ Questions (866)  

    Timeline for Chapter Three   

    IV. Political Communities Reordered (c.900-c.1050)

    Regionalism: Its Advantages and Its Discontents
    4.1 Fragmentation in the Islamic world: Al-Tabari, The Defeat of the Zanj Revolt (c.915)    
    4.2 The powerful in the Byzantine countryside: Romanus I Lecapenus, Novel (934)    
    4.3 Evanescent centralization in al-Andalus: Ibn‘Abd Rabbihi, Praise Be to Him (929-940)
    4.4 Donating to Cluny: Cluny’s Foundation Charter (910) and various charters of donation (10th–11th cent.)     
    4.5 Love and complaints in Angoulême: Agreement between Count William of the Aquitanians and Hugh IV of Lusignan (1028)
    4.6 The Peace of God at Bourges: Andrew of Fleury, The Miracles of St. Benedict (1040-1043) 

    Byzantium in Ascendance
    4.7 Patronage of the arts: “Theophanes Continuatus,” Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (before 963)
    4.8 The toils of war: The Epitaph of Basil II
    4.9 Imperial rule under two sisters: Michael Psellus, Zoe and Theodora (before 1063) 

    Scholarship and the Arts across the Islamic World
    4.10 Political theory: Al-Farabi, The Perfect State (c.940-942)   
    4.11 A Jewish poet in al-Andalus: Dunash ben Labrat, There Came a Voice (mid-10th cent.)  
    4.12 Education: Al-Qabisi, A Treatise Detailing the Circumstances of Students and the Rules Governing Teachers and Students (before 1012)  
    4.13 Logic: Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Treatise on Logic (1020s or 1030s)  

    Kingdoms in East Central Europe
    4.14 Hungary as heir of Rome: King Stephen, Laws (1000-1038)    
    4.15 Coming to terms with Catholic Poland: Thietmar of Merseburg, Chronicle (1013-1018) 
    4.16 Poland’s self-image: Boleslaw’s Coin (992-1000)   
    4.17 Kievan Rus’: The Russian Primary Chronicle (c.1113, incorporating earlier materials)   

    Northern Europe
    4.18 An Ottonian courtier/bishop: Ruotger, Life of Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne (late 960s)
    4.19 Law: King Æthelred II, Law Code (1008)
    4.20 Christianity comes to Denmark: The Jelling Monument (960s)
    4.21 The Vikings as enemies: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (c.1048?)
    Map 4.1 Southern England
    4.22 The Vikings as heroes: Egil’s Saga (10th cent./13th cent.) 

    Timeline for Chapter Four  

    Reading through Looking  

    I. Material Objects

    Plate 1 Seal of Boris-Michael (864-889)   
    Plate 2 Boleslaw’s Coin (992-1000)    
    Plate 3.a The Jelling Monument (960s)   
    Plate 3.b The Jelling Monument reconstructed
    Plate 4 The Bayeux Tapestry (end of the 11th cent.)    
    Plate 5 Juan de la Cosa, World Chart (1500)  

    II. Weapons and Warfare in the Middle Ages  

    “Greek Fire”
    Plate 6 “Greek fire” in the Synopsis historion (end of the 12th cent.)
    Plate 7 A portable hand-siphon (11th cent.) 

    Siege Warfare
    Plate 8 Siege warfare in the “Crusader Bible” (c.1244-1254)
    Plate 9 Great Helm (second half of the 13th cent.) 

    Mongol Arms and Armor        
    Plate 10 Mongol heavy cavalry (c.1306 or c.1314-15)
    Plate 11 Mongol armored coat (late 13th cent.)
    Plate 12 Mongol ceramic bombs (late 13th cent.)

    The Longbow
    Plate 13 The Battle of Crécy in Froissart, Chronicles (late 15th cent.) 

    Handgonnes and Cannons
    Plate 14 Handgonne with matchlock (1411)
    Plate 15 Gunpowder weapons (1442-1443)
    Plate 16 Small bombard (15th cent.) 

    V. New Configurations (c.1050-c.1150)

    The Seljuk Transformation
    5.1 The Seljuks as enemies: Abu’l-Fazl Beyhaqi, The Battle of Dandanqan (before 1077)
    Map 5.1 The Early Seljuk Empire
    5.2 Shi‘ites vilified: Nizam al-Mulk, The Book of Policy (1091)  

    A Profit Economy
    5.3 Cultivating new lands: Frederick of Hamburg’s Agreement with Colonists from Holland (1106)    
    5.4 Ibn ‘Abdun, Regulations for the Market at Seville (early 12th cent.)   
    5.5 The role of royal patronage: Henry I, Privileges for the Citizens of London (1130-1133) 

    Church Reform
    5.6 The pope’s challenge: Gregory VII, Admonition to Henry IV (1075)
    5.7 The royal response: Henry IV, Letter to Gregory VII (1075)    
    5.8 The papal view: Gregory VII, Letter to Hermann of Metz (1076)      

    The Clergy in Action
    5.9 Dressing for the part: Vesting Prayers (c.1000?)     
    5.10 Cultivating virtue: The Star of Clerics (c.1200?)     
    5.11 Keeping tabs: A Visitation Record (1268)      

    The First Crusade
    5.12 Calling the Crusade: Robert the Monk, Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont (1095)
    5.13 Jewish martyrs: Solomon bar Samson, Chronicle (c.1140) 
    5.14 A Westerner in the Holy Land: Stephen of Blois, Letter to His Wife (1098)   
    5.15 The Muslim view: Ibn al-Qalanisi, The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades (before 1160) 

    The Norman Conquest of England
    5.16 The pro-Norman position: William of Jumièges, The Deeds of the Dukes of the Normans (c.1070)    
    5.17 The native position: “Florence of Worcester,” Chronicle of Chronicles (early 12th cent.)    
    5.18 The Conquest depicted: The Bayeux Tapestry (end of the 11th cent.)   
    5.19 Exploiting the Conquest: Domesday Book (1087)     

    The Twelfth-Century Renaissance
    5.20 Logic: Abelard, Glosses on Porphyry (c.1100)   
    5.21 Medical science: Constantine the African’s translation of Johannitius’s Isagoge (before 1098)     

    Cluniacs and Cistercians
    5.22 The Cistercian view: St. Bernard, Apologia (1125)    
    5.23 The Cluniac view: Peter the Venerable, Miracles (mid-1130s-mid-1150s)      

    Timeline for Chapter Five  

    VI. Institutionalizing Aspirations (c.1150-c.1250)    

    Wars Holy and Unholy
    6.1 The Northern Crusades: Helmold, The Chronicle of the Slavs (1167-1168)
    6.2 Saladin’s jihad:  Ibn Shaddad, The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin (1195-1216)
    6.3 The Fourth Crusade: Nicetas Choniates, O City of Byzantium (c.1215)       

    Grounding Justice in Royal Law
    6.4 English common law: The Assize of Clarendon (1166)
    6.5 English litigation on the ground: The Costs of Richard of Anstey’s Lawsuit (1158-1163) 
    6.6 The legislation of a Spanish king: The Laws of Cuenca (1189-1193)  

    Local Arrangements
    6.7 A Byzantine monastery on Cyprus: Neophytos, Testamentary Rule for the Hermitage of the Holy Cross (1214)
    6.8 Doing business: A Genoese societas (1253)  
    6.9 Women’s work: Guild Regulations of the Parisian Silk Fabric Makers (13th cent.)  

    Bureaucracy at the Papal Curia
    6.10 The growth of papal business: Innocent III, Letters (1200-1202)  
    6.11 Petitioning the papacy: The Register of Thomas of Hereford (1281)   
    6.12 Mocking the papal bureaucracy: The Gospel According to the Marks of Silver (c.1200)  

    Confrontations
    6.13 Henry II and Becket: The Constitutions of Clarendon (1164)  
    6.14 Emperor and pope: The Diet of Besançon (1157)   
    6.15 King and nobles: The Magna Carta (1215) 

    New Literary Forms
    6.16 Byzantine romantic fiction: Niketas Eugenianos, Drosilla and Charikles (c.1156)
    6.17 Love and propriety in al-Andalus: Anonymous, The Tale of Bayad and Riyad (early 13th cent.)
    6.18 A troubadour love song: Bernart de Ventadorn, When I see the lark (c.1147-c.1170)    
    6.19 A trobairitz love song: La Comtessa de Dia, I have been in heavy grief (late 12th-early 13th cent.)  
    6.20 A political song from the south of France: Bertran de Born, Half a sirventés I’ll sing (1190) 
    6.21 Fabliaux: The Piece of Shit and The Ring that Controlled Erections (13th cent.) 
    6.22 Romance: Chrétien de Troyes, Lancelot (c.1177-1181)      

    Developments in Religious Sensibilities
    6.23 Disciplining and purifying Christendom: Decrees of Lateran IV (1215)     
    6.24 Devotion through poverty: Peter Waldo in The Chronicle of Laon (1173-1178)     
    6.25 Devotion through mysticism: Jacques de Vitry, The Life of Mary of Oignies (1213)    
    6.26 The mendicant movement: St. Francis, A Rule for Hermitages (1217-1221) and The Testament (1226)  
    6.27 Religious feeling turned violent: Chronicle of Trier (1231)  

    Timeline for Chapter Six  

    VII. Tensions and Reconciliations (c.1250-c.1350)

    The Mongols and Mamluks
    7.1 A spokesman for Mongol rule: Rashid al-Din, Universal History (before 1318)  
    7.2 A Mongol reply to the pope: Guyuk Khan, Letter to Pope Innocent IV (1246)
    7.3 The Hungarian king bewails the Mongol invasions: Béla IV, Letter to Pope Innocent IV (c.1250)
    7.4 An Islamic account of the fall of Acre: Abu’l-Fida, A Short History of Mankind (1318-1319)
    7.5 A Christian account of the fall of Acre: “The Templar of Tyre,” Deeds of the Cypriots (before 1343)
    7.6 The global economy: Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, The Practice of Trade (c.1340s)
    Map 7.1 Place Names from Azov to Hangzhou 

    New Formations in Eastern Europe
    7.7 Poland as a frontier society: The Henryków Book (c.1268)
    7.8 The Lithuanian duke flirts with Christianity: Duke Gediminas, Letter to Pope John XXII (1322) and Letter to the Townspeople of Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald, Stettin, and Gotland (May 26, 1323)    
    7.9 Pagan Lithuania in Christian Europe: Peter of Dusburg, Chronicle of the Prussian Land (c.1320-1326)    
    7.10 Bulgaria claims a saint: The Short Life of St. Petka (Paraskeve) of Tarnov (13th cent.)    
    7.11 Bulgaria and Venice regularize commercial relations: Oath and Treaty (1347)     

    Transformations in the Cities
    7.12 The popolo gains power: The Ghibelline Annals of Piacenza (1250) 
    7.13 The Hanseatic League: Decrees of the League (1260-1264)    
    7.14 Too big to fail? A Great Bank Petitions the City Council of Siena (1298)   

    Heresies and Persecutions
    7.15 Inquisition: Jacques Fournier, Episcopal Register (1318-1325)   
    7.16 Procedures for isolating lepers: Sarum Manual (based on materials from c.1360s)  
    7.17 Jews in England: Statute of the Jewry (1275) and Petition of the “Commonalty” of the Jews (shortly after 1275)   

    Rulers and Ruled
    7.18 The Spanish cortes: Alfonso X, Cortes of Valladolid (1258)
    7.19 The commons participate: Summons of Representatives of Shires and Towns to Parliament (1295)     
    7.20 A charismatic ruler: Joinville, The Life of St. Louis (1272)   
    7.21 The papal challenge: Boniface VIII, Unam sanctam (1302)    

    Modes of Thought, Feeling, and Devotion
    7.22 Scholasticism: Thomas Aquinas, On Love (1271)
    7.23 The vernacular comes into its own: Dante, Inferno, Canto V (Paolo and Francesca) (1313-1321)
    7.24 Medieval drama: Directions for an Annunciation Play (14th cent.)  
    7.25 The feast of Corpus Christi: The Life of Juliana of Mont-Cornillon (1261-1264)      

    Timeline for Chapter Seven    

    VIII. Catastrophe and Creativity (c.1350-c.1500)

    The Black Death
    8.1 The effects of the plague: Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron (1348-1351)
    8.2 Warding off the plague through processions: Ibn Battuta, Travels (before 1368)    
    8.3 Warding off the plague through prayer: Archbishop William, Letter to His Official at York (July 1348)    
    8.4 Blaming the Jews for the Black Death: Heinrich von Diessenhoven, On the Persecution of the Jews (c.1350)      

    The Ottomans
    8.5 A Turkish hero: Ashikpashazade, Othman Comes to Power (late 15th cent.)    
    8.6 Diplomacy: Peace Agreement between the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II and the Signoria of Venice (1478) 

    Byzantium: Decline and Fall
    8.7 Before the fall: Patriarch Anthony, Letter to the Russian Church (1395)    
    8.8 The fall bewailed: George Sphrantzes, Chronicle (before 1477)    
    8.9 Byzantine culture persists: Petitions from the Greek Community at Venice (1470-1511) 

    War and Social Unrest
    8.10 Chivalric and non-chivalric models: Froissart, Chronicles (c.1400)    
    8.11 National feeling: Jeanne d’Arc, Letter to the English (1429)    
    8.12 The woolworkers (ciompi) revolt at Siena: Donato di Neri and his son, Chronicle of Siena (1371)
    8.13 The commons revolt: Wat Tyler’s Rebellion (after 1381)      

    Crises and Changes in the Church and Religion
    8.14 The conciliarist movement: Jean Gerson, Sermon at the Council of Constance (1415)    
    8.15  Visions of Divinity: Julian of Norwich, Showings (c.1373)
    8.16 The Hussite program: The Four Articles of Prague (1420)  

    The Renaissance
    8.17 Re-evaluating antiquity: Cincius Romanus, Letter to His Most Learned Teacher Franciscus de Fiana (1416)    
    8.18 A new theory of art: Leon Battista Alberti, On Painting (1435-1436)    
    8.19 Defending women: Christine de Pisan, The Book of the City of Ladies (1404-1407)  

    Finding a New World
    8.20 Mapping the New World: Juan de la Cosa, World Chart (1500) 
    8.21 Taking Mexico: Hernán Cortés, The Second Letter (1520)      

    Timeline for Chapter Eight    

    Sources    
    Index of Names, Places, and Readings

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